How long to manifest and when to test

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), usually pass from person to person through sexual contact. Testing can help make sex safer and ensure people receive proper treatment for STIs

Each STI has its own incubation period, which is how long it takes for symptoms to appear. In some cases, it can take months for an STI to show up on tests. In other cases, it may only take days.

This article explores the incubation periods of different STIs, how soon people can get tested, and the importance of testing.

The incubation period is how long it takes for symptoms to appear after exposure. The window period is how long it takes to get a positive test result for the infection after exposure. These periods are often similar.

Some general symptoms that indicate a person might have an STI include:

  • genital itching or burning
  • pain during intercourse or urination
  • a new or unusual discharge
  • bumps or growths on or around the genitals
  • a foul smell coming from the genitals or after sex

However, some STIs do not cause symptoms for many years, even though a person can still get a positive test result. This is why it is important to rely on testing, not just symptoms.

In most cases, a person can get an STI test within a few weeks of exposure. If a person has a curable STI, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, they may need a retest after treatment.

People at high risk of certain STIs should ask for a retest, even after a negative result. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend annual HIV testing for people at risk, such as those whose partners have HIV or people who share needles.

The testing window for common STIs is as follows:


A nucleic acid test analyzes a blood sample for HIV. It can indicate a positive result 10–33 days after exposure. The antigen/antibody test, also a blood test, looks for HIV antibodies. It also looks for an antigen that the body produces before antibodies appear. It can get results 18–45 days after exposure.

The antibody test uses a blood or saliva sample to look for HIV antibodies. It takes the longest to get a reliable result, at 23–90 days after exposure. A person can be confident they do not have HIV if they get a negative test during the window period and have no subsequent contact with someone who could have the virus.


A doctor can test for chlamydia by swabbing the vagina, cervix, rectum, or throat, or by taking a urine sample. If symptoms appear, they usually present within 7–21 days of exposure. A test can normally detect chlamydia within 1–2 weeks of exposure.


A doctor can test for gonorrhea with a urine sample. In some cases, they may also swab the urethra, anus, throat, or cervix to get a more reliable result.

Most tests can detect the infection within 5 days to 2 weeks of exposure. If

Coronavirus cases surge among college-aged individuals just as universities reopened, studies say

Two new studies released on Tuesday take an in-depth look what may be driving the numbers up.

In the first study, researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention looked at nearly 100,000 coronavirus cases reported to the agency between August 2 and September 5.

The study found that during that period, weekly Covid-19 cases among persons aged 18-22 years increased 55% nationally. Researchers found the greatest Increases in the Northeast at 144% and the Midwest at 123%.

“The observed increases in Covid-19 cases among persons aged 18-22 years could be driven by many factors, including changes in behavior or risk profiles resulting from multiple social, economic, and public policy changes during this period. Because approximately 45% of persons aged 18-22 years attend colleges and universities and 55% of those attending identified as White persons, it is likely that some of this increase is linked to resumption of in-person attendance at some colleges and universities,” the researchers wrote in the CDC’s weekly report on death and disease, the MMWR.

“Previous reports identified young adults as being less likely than other age groups to adhere to some Covid-19 prevention measures, which places them and their close contacts at higher risk for Covid-19,” they added.

CNN previously spoke to several psychologists about why students may rebel against Covid-19 safety measures.
The psychology behind why some college students break Covid-19 rules

“Their decision making … is more about ‘what’s in the moment, what am I missing out on, what is the thing that would make me happiest in this moment?'” Ben Locke, the senior director for Counseling & Psychological Services at Pennsylvania State University said.

That imbalance, he said, may cause this age group to make more risky decisions, like attending a party.

The North Carolina Department of Health and University of North Carolina study

The second study, led by a team at the North Carolina Department of Health and the University of North Carolina, showed what happened in real time as students began to return to campus on August 3. The university tried to make moving in safe, spreading it out over a week, reducing crowding in dining halls and taking other measures. But the students gathered and partied, anyway.

The university quickly determined the virus was spreading too fast and moved all classes online. It also asked students to move back home or off-campus.

By August 25, 670 cases of Covid-19 had been confirmed, almost all of them in people under the age of 22.

The largest cluster was at an off-campus apartment complex affiliated with the university.

“The rapid increase in cases within two weeks of opening campus suggests that robust measures are needed to reduce transmission at institutes of higher education, including efforts to increase consistent use of masks, reduce the density of on-campus housing, increase testing for SARS-CoV-2, and discourage student gatherings,” the researchers wrote.

So, who is to blame?

The University of Tennessee had a similar event happen and had to scramble to create more quarantine and isolation space as more and more students became infected.

Purging water system of brain-eating microbe to take 60 days


LAKE JACKSON, Texas (AP) — A Houston-area official said it will take 60 days to ensure a city drinking water system is purged of a deadly, microscopic parasite that doctors believed killed a boy and that led to warnings for others not to drink tap water.

Lake Jackson City Manager Modesto Mundo said Monday that three of 11 samples of the city’s water indicated preliminary positive results for the naegleria fowleri microbe. Mundo said Lake Jackson residents are still urged to boil their tap water before using it.

One sample, Mundo said, came from the home of Josiah McIntyre, the 6-year-old boy whom doctors said died earlier this month after being infected with the brain-eating parasite.

Maria Castillo, Josiah’s mother, said Monday that her son first started showing flu-like symptoms. But those quickly worsened to the point where he had trouble standing and communicating.

“We found out that it was, most likely this amoeba that was causing all of these symptoms,” Castillo said outside her home, in front of a yard sign that showed a picture of her son.

Doctors took measures to alleviate swelling in the child’s brain and tried to save him.

It was hard for Josiah’s mother to accept the death of a child so full of life.

“Josiah loved to be outside and he loved to be with his sister and his cousin,” Castillo said “He was a lovable little boy and loved everybody he was around.”

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality warned the Brazosport Water Authority late Friday of the potential contamination of its water supply by the deadly microscopic flagellate. The TCEQ has advised the community to flush out its water distribution

Factbox: Trump, Biden Healthcare Differences in Spotlight Amid Pandemic, Supreme Court Fight | Top News

(Reuters) – Healthcare, always a top concern for U.S. voters, has taken on even greater importance amid a coronavirus pandemic that has killed more than 205,000 Americans and cost millions more their jobs.

The death of liberal Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, meanwhile, has raised the stakes of the upcoming legal battle over Obamacare, formally known as the Affordable Care Act, when the high court hears the Trump administration’s effort to repeal the law days after the Nov. 3 election.

Here is a look at some of the vast differences on healthcare policy between Republican President Donald Trump and his Democratic challenger, former Vice President Joe Biden:

Trump has ceded much of the response to the pandemic to the states, rather than pursuing a national effort to expand testing, coordinate contact tracing and acquire protective equipment in bulk. He has also sent mixed messages on masks, which public health experts have said are crucial to slowing the spread of the virus.

Since the spring, Trump has pressed governors to reopen their states and has called on public schools to return to in-person instruction, arguing that the “cure cannot be worse than the disease.” He has often downplayed the deadliness of the virus and at times publicly undermined his administration’s own experts.

Trump signed into law several relief bills that have delivered trillions of dollars to individuals and businesses, though congressional Democrats have demanded more spending. The administration also launched “Operation Warp Speed,” an effort to support development of a coronavirus vaccine.

Biden has vowed to “listen to the science,” even saying he would consider another national economic shutdown if experts recommend it. He has called for a national mask standard, though he has acknowledged he may not have the authority to mandate their use.

His coronavirus plan calls for scaling up testing and contact tracing and promises to appoint a “supply commander” to oversee supply lines of critical equipment.

Biden has also proposed reopening insurance marketplaces for people who lost coverage through their jobs, expanding paid sick leave, and increasing pay for frontline workers. He has questioned whether Trump may try to politicize the vaccine process to boost his own re-election chances.

After years of failed attempts by Republican lawmakers to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), Trump has turned to other tools to undermine the sweeping healthcare law: executive power and the courts.

The Justice Department is backing a lawsuit brought by several Republican-led states seeking to overturn the entire ACA, a case the U.S. Supreme Court is expected to hear on Nov. 10 – one week after Election Day.

Justice Ginsburg’s death has deepened concerns among Democrats that the court, which previously upheld the law 5-4 in 2012, might rule against the ACA. Under the law, more than 20 million Americans have gained insurance coverage.

The Trump administration has not proposed a comprehensive replacement, despite Trump’s vow to deliver a better, less-costly healthcare system. On Thursday, he signed two executive orders as part of what he called

Black Executives Face Greater Obstacles on Career Ladder

Just four of the chief executives running America’s top 500 companies are Black, yet the pool of highly educated, experienced Black professionals has never been greater. Black professionals who make it to the C-Suite are rarely given the profit-and-loss positions that serve as stepping stones to the top job. Here are some of the reasons why.

1. Black employees face more obstacles earlier in their careers.

A substantial body of research shows that people tend to view Black professionals more negatively, regardless of their qualifications or actual work performed. “We don’t get a presumption of competence,” says Orlando Richmond Sr., a Jackson, Miss.-based partner at law firm Butler Snow. A 2019 study of racial bias in hiring for postdoctoral positions revealed Black applicants were rated less hirable, likable, and competent than white, Latino or Asian applicants. A 2017 study examining callback rates for Black job applicants found discrimination levels haven’t improved in the past 25 years.

2. Diversity efforts are often focused on recruitment rather than retention.

Many companies tend to emphasize diversity in recruitment but overlook retention and advancement, researchers and executives say. Michael Hyter, chief diversity officer at recruiting firm

Korn Ferry,

says that by the time companies are trying to promote people at the managerial level, they have often already lost key talent. Among all U.S. companies with 100 or more employees, Black people hold just 3% of executive or senior-level roles, according to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission data. More than a third of Black professionals say they intend to leave their company within the next two years, with many mentioning isolation and workplace hostility, compared with 27% of their white peers, according to Coqual, a think tank focused on workplace diversity.

3. Many Black professionals lack access to senior managers.

Relationships play a large role in career-building. A 2019 Korn Ferry survey of Black executives holding profit-and-loss roles found that 86% said having a sponsor—someone who supported and helped advocate for them when opportunities came up—was indispensable to their career progression. But CEOs, recruiters and senior executives say that Black professionals often don’t have the relationships that are pivotal to advancement. Fewer Black professionals have access to senior leaders at work than their white peers, according to the Coqual study. The same study also found that fewer Black professionals have managers who give them growth opportunities than their white peers.

Read the original article by Te-Ping Chen here.

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Tampa International Airport 1st To Offer Coronavirus Testing

TAMPA, FL — Tampa International Airport will soon offer coronavirus testing for arriving and departing passengers, announced airport officials Monday morning.

TPA is the first airport in the country to do so.

TPA is partnering with BayCare Health System to provide the tests. There will be two types of FDA-approved tests offered – the swab and rapid antigen. The antigen test, which produces results in 15 minutes and is most accurate within five days of the onset of symptoms, offers an added layer of same-day reassurance for travelers arriving at or departing TPA.

“We think this is going to be a very successful trial,” said the TPA CEO Joe Lopano. “This is just a test but if it’s successful, and we think it will be, we’ll continue it and we’ll grow it and we’ll build it into something more.”

The testing is voluntary.

As part of an initial trial period, according to TPA, tests will be administered from Oct. 1 through Oct. 31 in the main terminal. They will be offered seven days a week on a walk-in basis from 8 a.m. until 2 p.m.

All ticketed passengers who are flying, or can prove they’ve flown within the prior three days, are eligible.

The testing site, located inside the Main Terminal near the Airside F shuttle, will offer both the rapid antigen test and Polymerase Chain Reaction test.

PCR nasal swab test results are the most accurate and broadly accepted internationally. Interested travelers will be able to purchase either test regardless of which airline they’re booked on, their gate location or destination.

The PCR COVID-19 test costs $125 and the antigen test costs $57.

“We’re going to build confidence on behalf of the traveling public by giving them an opportunity to have a test done right here at the airport before they get on a flight,” Lopano said. “This is the only airport in the whole country that is doing these tests. We hope others will follow. Testing is the key to getting people back to travel.”

The testing will be offered in the main terminal on a walk-in basis starting Oct. 1.

“I believe this is going to allow people to travel to see loved ones,” said Baycare Chief Medical Officer Dr. Nishant Anand. “It’s going to allow other passengers to feel safe if they’re traveling. It’s going to allow them to know that people around them have had some sort of screening test done.”

At many destinations around the world, government health agencies are requiring travelers to provide a negative PCR test result to avoid quarantine or other restrictions upon arrival.

Passengers departing from Tampa to states, countries or territories requiring negative PCR tests are advised to take the test three days before departure and can expect results within 48 hours. The antigen test, which produces results in 15 minutes and is most accurate within five days of the onset of symptoms, offers an added layer of same-day reassurance for travelers arriving at or departing TPA.

Benchmark Fitness’ Outdoor Trivia Workout Oct. 3 to support nonprofits

After the success of their grand opening, Benchmark Fitness, Crystal Lake’s newest fitness center, is welcoming the community to an outdoor trivia workout event to support nonprofits at 10:30 a.m. Saturday, Oct. 3.

Benchmark Fitness’ Outdoor Trivia Workout invites attendees to form a team of two to four people for a socially-distanced group fitness class. Along with a fun, challenging session that combines elements of HIIT and strength training, teams will battle it out through fitness-related trivia questions for a chance to win!



The top two teams will receive free T-shirts and one of the following: one month of group training for each participant; two personal training sessions per person; or three small-group fitness classes (in-person or virtual).

Each participant has the opportunity to submit the name of a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization they’d like to support. At the end of the workout, one of the submitted charities will be drawn at random to receive 100% of the profits from the event.

“We wanted to do this event as a way to engage people in fun, health-centered activities that also support local nonprofit organizations,” says Benchmark Fitness co-owner Danny Miller. “We feel that as a local business, it’s always important to give back to the community.”

Join the fun on Saturday, Oct. 3 at 10:30 a.m. at Benchmark Fitness, 975 Nimco Drive, Unit G in Crystal Lake.

This event is open to all ages and fitness levels, and membership at Benchmark Fitness is not required. The cost to participate is $25 and guests can pay at the event with cash or a check.



To sign up, email your team name and the names of your team members to [email protected]

Benchmark Fitness will be supplying an outdoor rubber mat and a set of dumbbells for every participant to use, though you are encouraged to bring extra dumbbells if you’d like a challenge!

Benchmark Fitness is located at 975 Nimco Drive, Unit G, Crystal Lake, IL 60014, near the corner of Route 31 and Rakow Road. The team is focused on providing a safe, comfortable space for newbies and experienced gym-goers alike. Offering group fitness classes and personal training seven days a week, there’s an opportunity for every schedule. To learn more, sign up for this event, or start your membership, visit, email [email protected], or call (779) 994-7148.


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Global Precision Medicine Market 2020 with (COVID-19) Impact Analysis, Product Type, Application, Key Manufacturers, Regions and Forecast to 2025

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Sep 29, 2020 (CDN Newswire via Comtex) —
A wide-ranging analysis report titled Global Precision Medicine Market 2020 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025 provides a brief overview of the market covering the scope, size, disposition, and growth of the industry. The report presents an estimate of the current market scenario and data related to the competitive landscape of the industry. It delivers five-year industry forecasts, growth rates, and an analysis of the industry key players and their market shares. The report shows information regards to several regions that have successfully established its position in the global Precision Medicine market. The geographical and competitive dynamics of this global market will help you get a comprehensive picture of the market.

An industrial chain, market measurements regarding revenue, sales, value, capacity, regional market examination, section insightful information, and the market forecast is provided. The report gives global Precision Medicine market share analysis, as well as analyzes market position, market share, and segmented revenue. Further company and financial overview, product portfolio, new project launched, recent development analysis are the parameters added with this report.

NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.


The report investigates the development, trends, and new entrants in the sector, with elaborate profiles of the leading companies operating in the market, including: Johnson & Johnson, Novartis, Illumina, IBM, Thermo Fisher Scientific, GE Healthcare, Almac Group, Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Roche, Abbott Laboratories, Randox Laboratories, Intel Corporation, Healthcore, Qiagen, Biomrieux Sa, Cepheid

In market segmentation by types, the report covers: Diagnostics, Therapies

In market segmentation by applications, the report covers the following uses: Oncology, Neurosciences, Immunology, Respiratory, Others

The report provides a 5-year forecast (2020-2025) assessed based on how the global Precision Medicine market is predicted to grow in major regions like: North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Southeast Asia and Australia), South America (Brazil, Argentina), MENA (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Turkey and South Africa)

Industry Size & Forecast: The report offers estimations on the global Precision Medicine market industry size on the basis of value and volume are provided in this part of the report. This report offers deep insights into the prevailing and upcoming market trends. Then it has examined the high-growth segments including product type, application, and end-users, taking into account their CAGR, share, and size. Market developments and future opportunities estimated to emerge in the market industry are looked into in this study. The forecasts are provided taking into consideration product, application, and regional segments of the market.


A Peek At Over the Highlights of the Report:

  • The study provides a synopsis

Alabama Confirms 494 New Coronavirus Cases, 16 Deaths

MONTGOMERY, AL — Alabama reported about the same number of new COVID-19 cases Tuesday as it did Monday, as the Alabama Department of Public Health reported 494 new cases of the virus overnight.

The state also confirmed 16 deaths from the virus in Tuesday’s report.

The ADPH also added 77 probable cases to its total. In all, Alabama has reported 136,549 confirmed COVID-19 cases, and 17,005 probable cases.

“Confirmed and probable cases are investigated and contacts identified in the same manner. As more antigen diagnostic testing has been approved under emergency use authorized by FDA, the number of probable cases in Alabama continues to increase,” ADPH said in a statement. “More healthcare providers, including physicians’ offices, urgent cares, and some emergency rooms, are using antigen testing. Thus, ADPH has revised some charts and graphs on its dashboard to capture the most current situation for COVID-19 in Alabama.”

More than 1.1 million diagnostic tests have been administered in the state, and 58,235 antibody tests, according to the ADPH. Of the 136,549 confirmed cases of the virus in Alabama, 64,583 are presumed to have recovered.

“Rapid antigen tests, while diagnostic tests, are counted as probable due to antigen tests showing lower ability to determine if a person has SARS-CoV-2,” the ADPH said. “In other words, point of care antigen tests are less sensitive and show more false negative results than laboratory performed PCR tests. Point of care antigen testing can be useful where there are high rates of SARS-CoV-2. As more rapid point of care testing is performed for SARS-CoV-2, ADPH is working to remind entities to report all testing done, both positive and negative, to ensure that ADPH testing numbers reflect accuracy of percent positive testing.”


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Hoover ZIP Codes Among Those With Most New Coronavirus Cases

This article originally appeared on the Birmingham Patch

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Here’s Why Some Cities Are Giving Cash to Residents

Cities including Stockton, Calif. and Hudson, N.Y. are experimenting with different models related to universal basic income. In Stockton, a program that allocated $500 a month to 125 randomly selected households in low-income neighborhoods was scheduled to end in July has been extended until January. Meanwhile, Hudson is launching a pilot program to give $500 a month to randomly selected residents for five years.

1. The funds have helped recipients get through the pandemic.

More than half of the funds from Stockton’s $3.8 million experiment have been spent on food and utilities, according to preliminary findings. Stockton’s 30-year-old mayor, Michael Tubbs, who pioneered the project, said of the spending, “What we found is that you can trust people to make good decisions.”

2. Critics are skeptical about the concept.

Some economists argue that no-strings-attached cash could be a disincentive for people to find work—especially if the money is only given to low income households. However, studies of universal cash transfers in Alaska and among the Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina found no negative effect on work. On a national level, a similar program targeting households within certain income brackets could cost as much as $1.2 trillion, according to economists Melissa Kearney and Magne Mogstad. Kearney said it would likely have to replace existing safety net programs.

3. Some mayors are still willing to give it a shot

Roughly two dozen mayors from cities as large as Los Angeles and as small as Holyoke, Mass., have signed on to a newly formed coalition advocating for a nationwide guaranteed income. “This Covid[-19] economy has just yanked the rug out from our communities across the country in a way we’ve never experienced before,” said Melvin Carter, mayor of Saint Paul, Minn., and a member of the group. He said his city is working with donors to set up its own experiment similar to the one in Stockton.

Read the original article by David Harrison here.

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