Med students on how COVID pushed them into action, highlighted health care inequities

It was on a Saturday in mid-March when Abby Schiff, then a third-year medical student at Harvard working through surgery clinical rotations, found out she wouldn’t be going back to the hospital.



a group of people on a sidewalk: Medical student Francis Wright (top left) during a mask drive early on in the pandemic with his classmates (clockwise) India Perez-Urbano, Kara Lau, Lane Epps, Ninad Bhat, Laeesha Cornejo and Hunter Jackson, the last of whom came up with the idea.


© Courtesy Francis Wright
Medical student Francis Wright (top left) during a mask drive early on in the pandemic with his classmates (clockwise) India Perez-Urbano, Kara Lau, Lane Epps, Ninad Bhat, Laeesha Cornejo and Hunter Jackson, the last of whom came up with the idea.

She had worked the day before, but with the coronavirus threat growing quickly, Schiff, like thousands of other medical students across the country, was sidelined when the Association of American Medical Colleges issued a temporary suspension of clinical rotations in hopes of protecting students and patients, and conserving personal protective equipment (PPE).

She didn’t sit around waiting, though. As nurses came out of retirement and medical school professors pressed pause on teaching to answer the call to action on the front lines, Schiff also got to work. Within hours, she and a group of other students started building a crash course on COVID-19 for medical professionals.

“At the time, a lot of Harvard medical students were talking about what was going on, and [it] felt like we suddenly had a lot of time on our hands,” Schiff told ABC News. “There was this crisis going on. How can we best contribute?”



a woman standing in front of a book shelf: Abby Schiff, a fourth-year medical student at Harvard Medical School, helped to create the school's COVID-19 curriculum and still keeps it updated on a regular basis.


© ABC News
Abby Schiff, a fourth-year medical student at Harvard Medical School, helped to create the school’s COVID-19 curriculum and still keeps it updated on a regular basis.

In less than a week, 70 of Schiff’s colleagues, including students and faculty, had put together a comprehensive, open-source COVID-19 curriculum.

“So we had about 80 pages of content — all referenced, all freely available — including things like thought questions, quiz questions… helpful information about how to put on masks and PPE, run ventilators,” she said. “And then also an explainer about basic epidemiological terms, about sort of the basics of virology and immunology and the clinical manifestations that were known at the time.”

Seven months later, the curriculum is still being updated with the latest science on a regular basis. Today, it includes modules on mental health, global health and communication, all meant to “dispel misinformation and myths,” said Schiff.



graphical user interface, application: Fourth-year Harvard medical student Abby Schiff (second from top left) attends a video meeting with her fellow students to discuss updates to their school's open-source COVID-19 curriculum.


© Courtesy Abby Schiff
Fourth-year Harvard medical student Abby Schiff (second from top left) attends a video meeting with her fellow students to discuss updates to their school’s open-source COVID-19 curriculum.

As co-chair for outreach, she said her role is to reach out to students and groups that are using the curriculum to get an idea of their needs and how they can best be met, as well as recruiting students to contribute. The curriculum has already been implemented in 32 medical schools across the country as either an elective or mandatory course, and it has been translated into 27 languages and used in at least 110 countries, Schiff said.

“It’s had a really wide reach, including in areas where

Germany hits 5,000 new cases, Merkel eyes action

BERLIN — The number of newly reported coronavirus cases in Germany has passed 5,000 for the first time since mid-April.

The country’s disease control agency, the Robert Koch Institute, said Wednesday that a further 5,132 infections and 43 deaths from COVID-19 were recorded over the past day.

Chancellor Angela Merkel is meeting the governors of Germany’s 16 states Wednesday to discuss which measures to take in response to the growing case load.

Officials are particularly concerned that COVID-19 infections might increase among older people, who are more likely to suffer serious illnesses.


So far, some 620 people in Germany are receiving intensive care treatment for COVID-19.

Since the start of the pandemic, Germany has recorded a total of 334,585 coronavirus infections, of which almost 282,000 are considered to have recovered. There have been 9,677 deaths in the country from COVID-19.

HERE’S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE VIRUS OUTBREAK:

— More masks, less play: Europe tightens rules as virus surges

— Possible safety issue spurs pause of COVID-19 antibody study

— AP-NORC poll: New angst for caregivers in time of COVID-19

— Lives Lost: Indian doctor embodied his family’s dreams

__ Despite virus fears, Texas sends most voters to the polls

___

— Follow AP’s pandemic coverage at http://apnews.com/VirusOutbreak and https://apnews.com/UnderstandingtheOutbreak

___

HERE’S WHAT ELSE IS HAPPENING:

LONDON — Health officials are scheduled to meet Wednesday to discuss whether to add areas of northern England, including Manchester and Lancashire, to the highest-risk tier, meaning additional anti-coronavirus measures such as closing pubs could soon be imposed there. Only Liverpool was placed in the highest-risk category when the plan was unveiled Monday.

The discussions come as the regional government in Northern Ireland prepares to announce even tougher measures, including a two-week school closure. Northern Ireland has the highest infection rate among the U.K.’s four nations.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson is being criticized by all sides two days after announcing his three-tier approach to controlling the virus.

A report released Tuesday showed that the government’s science advisers have called for tougher measures, including a two- to three-week national lockdown. The opposition Labour Party has called for that advice to be followed, while members of Johnson’s Conservative Party say the measures already in place go too far and are damaging the economy.

___

BERLIN — Berlin’s Staatskapelle orchestra under star conductor Daniel Barenboim has called off a three-country European tour planned for November because of the coronavirus pandemic and the difficulties of juggling different countries’ travel restrictions.

The Staatskapelle had planned to play Beethoven works in Paris, Athens and Vienna between Nov. 6 and 22.

The orchestra said Wednesday that it had proven impossible to go ahead with the tour, “not least because of the complex situation with travel to three countries, each with different travel and quarantine rules.” It said the orchestra hopes to be able to rearrange the concerts in the future.

The decision comes after new coronavirus infections hit a record daily increase last week across Europe.

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NEW DELHI

Med students on how COVID-19 pushed them to take action, highlighted health care inequities

It was on a Saturday in mid-March when Abby Schiff, then a third-year medical student at Harvard working through surgery clinical rotations, found out she wouldn’t be going back to the hospital.

She had worked the day before, but with the coronavirus threat growing quickly, Schiff, like thousands of other medical students across the country, was sidelined when the Association of American Medical Colleges issued a temporary suspension of clinical rotations in hopes of protecting students and patients, and conserving personal protective equipment (PPE).

She didn’t sit around waiting, though. As nurses came out of retirement and medical school professors pressed pause on teaching to answer the call to action on the front lines, Schiff also got to work. Within hours, she and a group of other students started building a crash course on COVID-19 for medical professionals.

“At the time, a lot of Harvard medical students were talking about what was going on, and [it] felt like we suddenly had a lot of time on our hands,” Schiff told ABC News. “There was this crisis going on. How can we best contribute?”

PHOTO: Abby Schiff, a fourth-year medical student at Harvard Medical School, helped to create the school's COVID-19 curriculum and still keeps it updated on a regular basis. (ABC News)
PHOTO: Abby Schiff, a fourth-year medical student at Harvard Medical School, helped to create the school’s COVID-19 curriculum and still keeps it updated on a regular basis. (ABC News)

In less than a week, 70 of Schiff’s colleagues, including students and faculty, had put together a comprehensive, open-source COVID-19 curriculum.

“So we had about 80 pages of content — all referenced, all freely available — including things like thought questions, quiz questions… helpful information about how to put on masks and PPE, run ventilators,” she said. “And then also an explainer about basic epidemiological terms, about sort of the basics of virology and immunology and the clinical manifestations that were known at the time.”

Seven months later, the curriculum is still being updated with the latest science on a regular basis. Today, it includes modules on mental health, global health and communication, all meant to “dispel misinformation and myths,” said Schiff.

PHOTO: Fourth-year Harvard medical student Abby Schiff (second from top left) attends a video meeting with her fellow students to discuss updates to their school's open-source COVID-19 curriculum. (Courtesy Abby Schiff )
PHOTO: Fourth-year Harvard medical student Abby Schiff (second from top left) attends a video meeting with her fellow students to discuss updates to their school’s open-source COVID-19 curriculum. (Courtesy Abby Schiff )

As co-chair for outreach, she said her role is to reach out to students and groups that are using the curriculum to get an idea of their needs and how they can best be met, as well as recruiting students to contribute. The curriculum has already been implemented in 32 medical schools across the country as either an elective or mandatory course, and it has been translated into 27 languages and used in at least 110 countries, Schiff said.

“It’s had a really wide reach, including in areas where there are fewer resources available,” she said. “In the age of the internet, and especially when there’s something like this pandemic that’s affecting people in every single country and really just upending the structures of knowledge, it’s really important to keep information

Dr. Anthony Fauci hopes worrisome numbers jolt Americans into action

Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, hopes the latest data on a rising number of Covid-19 cases and projections of possibly many more deaths “jolt” the American public into reality, he told CNN’s Jake Tapper on Monday.



a person standing in front of a car: A man performs a self-swab at a drive-through COVID-19 testing site at Eastern Florida State College on October 9, 2020 in Palm Bay, Florida. The Florida Department of Health reports that COVID-19 cases, deaths, and hospitalizations are on the rise while U.S President Donald Trump plans to hold a rally in Sanford, Florida after contracting the disease. (Photo by Paul Hennessy/NurPhoto via Getty Images)


© Paul Hennessy/NurPhoto/Getty Images
A man performs a self-swab at a drive-through COVID-19 testing site at Eastern Florida State College on October 9, 2020 in Palm Bay, Florida. The Florida Department of Health reports that COVID-19 cases, deaths, and hospitalizations are on the rise while U.S President Donald Trump plans to hold a rally in Sanford, Florida after contracting the disease. (Photo by Paul Hennessy/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

Dozens of states are seeing an upward trend of new Covid-19 cases — and the pandemic could get worse, as the latest forecast of a widely-used model projects another 181,000 deaths in the United States by February.

“I hope these numbers … jolt the American public into the realization that we really cannot let this happen — because it’s on a trajectory of getting worse and worse. And that’s the worst possible thing that can happen as we get into the cooler months,” said Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Fauci says he is concerned some people think officials are asking for too much, like reimposing measures tied to running restaurants and businesses.

“We are not talking about shutting down. We’re talking about simple public health measures, as simple as they sound, are really quite effective — and that’s what we say over and over again,” he told CNN.

It’s the same things you have heard before that can be effective — wear a face covering, don’t get too close to others, wash your hands often, don’t take part in a large group, he said.

And for the cooler months, still try to do things outside, he added. Experts fear that as people spend more time indoors, the virus will spread more widely.

“We don’t have to do anything more complicated than that — and you would have a major impact on preventing surges, or even turning surges around that are ongoing,” Fauci said.

As of Monday, coronavirus has infected more than 7.7 million people and killed more than 215,000 in the United States, according to Johns Hopkins University.

The overall death toll could nearly double to about 400,000 by February, according to the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Former CDC Director Dr. Richard Besser said it’s up to all Americans to make sure grim projections don’t become reality.

“What we do matters,” he said. “If we follow the lead of CDC and do the things that are working around the globe, in terms of wearing masks and social distancing and washing hands and investigating cases, ensuring people have what they need to isolate and quarantine, we can have a very different trajectory and we can get this in control.”

The trend is not just a US problem; the total number of

Caregiver Action Network Announces CareAcademy’s Helen Adeosun As New Member of Board of Directors

Helen Adeosun
Helen Adeosun
Helen Adeosun

Washington, DC, Oct. 08, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Caregiver Action Network (CAN), the nation’s leading family caregiving organization, recently announced its newest board member at the annual board meeting. Helen Adeosun, EdM the Founder and CEO of CareAcademy, a provider of advanced caregiver training and compliance solutions for the Home Care industry, joins the board effective immediately.

“Throughout my career, I have long admired CAN’s mission and laser focus on creating holistic support for America’s caregivers,” said Adeosun. “The COVID-19 pandemic rests on the shoulders of caregivers, and with that challenge comes great opportunity to enhance lives. I am excited to join CAN’s Board of Directors as we continue to elevate the critical role of caregivers, especially in this moment.”

Helen Adeosun is passionate about caregiving and the impact that the right caregiver can have on families. As an educator and workplace trainer, she has had a career in driving outcomes for adult learners and finding meaningful ways for them to engage in learning. Helen has worked with Teach for America, Boston Public Schools, and Pearson Education as well as a number of companies focused on caregiving issues. CareAcademy was born out of her own first-hand knowledge and experience as a caregiver, and the company’s mission is to help address the critical shortage of caregivers and empower caregivers to learn and deliver the best care to older adults. Helen holds a B.A. from the University of Notre Dame in Politics and Arabic Studies, and a EdM from Harvard University in Education Policy and Management.

“We are pleased to welcome an exceptional educator and innovator, Helen Adeosun, to CAN’s Board,” said John Schall, CAN Chief Executive Officer. “Our organization will benefit from her experience as a family caregiver, in addition to her extensive work in education and workplace training. Helen’s enthusiasm for helping America’s family caregivers overcome the issues they face, especially now when caregiving has become increasingly difficult, and her leadership and proven industry success, will help to support CAN’s critical role as the nation’s leading family caregiver organization.”

CANs Board of Directors
Melissa Rowley, Founder & CEO, Mar’age, LLC, Chair
Michael Shaughnessy, Account Director, TMP Government, LLC, Vice Chair
Marion T. R. Watkins, Alston & Bird, LLP, Office of Senator Robert Dole, Treasurer
Joff Masukawa, President, Diligentia Strategy, Secretary
Helen Adeosun, EdM, CEO, Founder, CareAcademy
Michelle Baker, Executive Vice President, Signal Group
Andrea Cohen, Co-founder & CEO, HouseWorks
Joseph Delahunty, VP, Global Head of Communications, Ascensia Diabetes Care
Wes Metheny, Partner, Penn Quarter Partners
Denise Henry Morrisey, Partner, Capitol Counsel
Ellis Rosenberg, President, Democracy Consulting Group
Anne Tumlinson, CEO, Anne Tumlinson Innovations
Dhruv Vasishtha, Senior Product Manager, PatientPing

About CAN
Caregiver Action Network is the nation’s leading family caregiver organization working to improve the quality of life for more than 90 million Americans who care for loved ones with chronic conditions, disabilities, disease, or the frailties of old age. CAN serves a broad spectrum of family caregivers ranging from the parents

Dubai fitness challenge will unite the city with action and purpose

  • Month-long calendar of exciting fitness and wellness events will exemplify Dubai government’s safety-first approach, with the highest standards of safety precautions and social distancing in place 

Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Dubai Fitness Challenge (DFC) – the city’s flagship fitness initiative championed by His Highness Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai and Chairman of Dubai Executive Council, is returning for its fourth edition from October 30 to November 28, 2020 to energise the emirate and further unite the community. Featuring an exciting mix of virtual and physical events and activities, this year’s programme will have in place the highest standards of safety precautions and social distancing measures to ensure Dubai’s residents and visitors can stay connected as they commit to 30 minutes of daily physical activity for the 30 days.

Throughout the month, an inspiring calendar of events, sports, health and wellness programmes and virtual sessions will be available to make fitness accessible and easy for all to complete their 30 days of physical activity.  DFC welcomes the whole city to find the motivation to keep moving, discover their passion for fitness and embark on a truly holistic wellness journey, regardless of age, ability, interest, fitness level or location preference.

Further details, including registration information and the full line-up for Dubai Fitness Challenge will be released in the coming weeks. Participants are encouraged to set goals prior to the initiative’s kick-off and register on the Dubai Fitness Challenge website.

Health and safety of the city’s people remains DFC’s top priority. All events and activities will be held in accordance with the Dubai Government health and safety guidelines.

For further information and to register, please visit www.dubaifitnesschallenge.com 

-Ends-

For further information, please contact: Dubai Tourism on [email protected]  or Edelman on [email protected] 

For more information, see:
Facebook:        www.facebook.com/dubaifitnesschallenge
Instagram:        @dubaifitnesschallenge
Twitter:             @dxbfitchallenge
Hashtag:           #Dubai30x30

About Dubai Fitness Challenge

The Dubai Fitness Challenge (DFC) is an initiative of His Highness Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai and Chairman of Dubai Executive Council. DFC has been created to motivate the people of Dubai to boost their physical activity and commit to 30 minutes of daily activity for 30 days. Running from October 30 to November 28 2020, the Challenge encompasses all forms of activity – from cycling and football, to kayaking, team sports, walking and yoga, as well as wellness and healthy lifestyle.  Everyone is encouraged to participate individually or together with friends, family and colleagues and enjoy new and exciting ways to improve their fitness and health levels, and help make Dubai the most active, healthiest, and happiest city in the world.

© Press Release 2020

Source Article

Call to Action for Screening, Early Treatment of Diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes derive benefit from earlier detection and treatment, suggests a decade-long follow-up of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study in General Practice of Intensive Treatment and Complication Prevention in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Identified by Screening (ADDITION-Europe).

“The 10-year follow-up findings support the use of intensive treatment of type 2 diabetes soon after diagnosis and have implications for policy relating to early detection and subsequent management of type 2 diabetes in primary care,” said Simon Griffin, MD.

Griffin, the study lead from the University of Cambridge, UK, presented the findings at the virtual European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting 2020. 

Although the difference in the primary outcome between the intensive treatment and routine care groups favored the former, the difference was not statistically significant.  

Still, “It looks like early intensive treatment of multiple risk factors soon after diagnosis is safe and seems to lower cardiovascular events and mortality…patients benefit from early detection, and in turn, early treatment,” Griffin emphasized.

Asked to comment, Andrew Boulton, MD, told Medscape Medical News that these results highlight the importance of recognizing type 2 diabetes not simply as a metabolic disease but as a cardiometabolic problem.

“The nonsignificance of these outcomes should not detract physicians in both primary and secondary care in their quest to achieve optimal control of not only diabetes, but also cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and body weight…and to avoid therapeutic inertia, which is frequently reported,” said Boulton, of University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK.

The 10-year results from ADDITION-Europe were also published in Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. And in an accompanying editorial, Takayoshi Sasako, MD, a diabetologist from the University of Tokyo, Japan, and colleagues say the effects of an intensive treatment program on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality seen at 5 years were largely sustained for an additional 5 years.

“Despite the lack of statistical significance — probably partly due to improvements in clinical practice when the study was done — these findings lend support to early multifactorial intervention in type 2 diabetes,” they stress.

Sasako and colleagues add that it will be interesting to see whether the postulated benefits from intensive multifactorial treatment in ADDITION-Europe will become more evident in the next decade or whether they will fade, as in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT).

“It will also be important to follow-up the ADDITION-Europe study cohort for the incidence of diabetes complications and mortality in the next decade and beyond, because such a prospective cohort in which patients are exposed to good control of risk factors in the first decade after diagnosis is rare,” they add.

Multifactorial Treatment Soon After Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

ADDITION-Europe aimed to assess the long-term effects of guidelines, education, and training on outcomes for people with diabetes detected by screening, and to quantify the effect of differences in treatment and risk factors in the first 5 years following detection. The 10-year results looked at any effects, including lasting effects on cardiovascular events, after the intensive intervention

Kentucky governor takes action as state fights becoming next COVID-19 hot spot

Kentucky Gov. Andy Beshear vowed to halt a recent escalation of COVID-19 cases after reporting 17 more coronavirus-related deaths on Thursday, marking one of the state’s highest one-day death tolls since the outbreak began earlier this year.



a man and a woman standing in front of a building: Emergency medical personnel transport a patient into the emergency department of Norton Women's and Children's Hospital, as all wear masks to avoid the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Louisville, Ky., March 24, 2020.


© Bryan Woolston/Reuters, FILE
Emergency medical personnel transport a patient into the emergency department of Norton Women’s and Children’s Hospital, as all wear masks to avoid the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Louisville, Ky., March 24, 2020.

“What that shows is we are — in our total case count — in an escalation, meaning last week was more; this week will be more than that, it appears,” Beshear told reporters at a press conference Thursday.

State health officials reported 910 new coronavirus cases on Thursday after shattering records earlier this week, with rural and urban areas seeing massive spikes in new infections. Of the newly reported cases, 146 were children under the age of 18 with the youngest victim being 3 months old.

MORE: Health officials urge Americans to get flu vaccine as concerns mount over possible ‘twindemic’

Last week the state saw its highest total of new infections reported over a seven-day period, but the governor said the state was on track to top that figure this week.

“When we have a lot of cases, sadly a lot of death follows,” Beshear warned.



a man and a woman standing in front of a building: Emergency medical personnel transport a patient into the emergency department of Norton Women's and Children's Hospital, as all wear masks to avoid the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Louisville, Ky., March 24, 2020.


© Bryan Woolston/Reuters, FILE
Emergency medical personnel transport a patient into the emergency department of Norton Women’s and Children’s Hospital, as all wear masks to avoid the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Louisville, Ky., March 24, 2020.

The 17 coronavirus-related fatalities reported on Thursday followed four COVID-19-related deaths on Wednesday.

The new deaths meant that as of Thursday, a total of 1,191 people had died from the coronavirus in Kentucky since the start of the pandemic. Seniors above the age of 80 account for more than half of those deaths.

Residents between the ages of 20 and 49 account for the bulk of statewide cases, but health officials are urging residents of all ages to take the virus seriously. People in the 20-29 age group appear to have the highest rates of diagnosis, according to state data.

To help combat the spread of the virus during Halloween, Beshear asked parents keep their children away from crowds and to use another approach to traditional trick-or-treating. He and state health commissioner Dr. Steven Stack asked residents to place individually wrapped candy outside on their porches, driveways or tables in lieu of the usual door-to-door trick-or-treating.

“We have put together the best guidance we can for Halloween to be safe. But we can’t do things exactly like we did them before, and we all ought to know that,” Beshear said. “Having a big party right now during COVID puts everybody at risk. Let’s not ruin Halloween for our kids by it spreading a virus that can harm people they love.”

MORE: Gov. Reeves takes action as Mississippi shapes up to become nation’s next COVID-19 hot

Experts: Tackling Poverty and Racism as Public Health Crises Requires Rapid Action | National News

Late last month, the Healthcare Anchor Network, a coalition of more than three dozen health systems in 45 states and Washington, D.C., released a public statement declaring: “It is undeniable: Racism is a public health crisis.” In the wake of the killing of George Floyd in May, many states, cities and counties across the United States issued similar declarations, according to the American Public Health Association.

While it is becoming clear that ZIP code may matter more to longevity than genetic code, some public health experts have been sounding the alarm for decades. Indeed, poverty and racism have an enormous – and devastating – impact on health, according to a panel of experts brought together for a webinar hosted by U.S. News & World Report as part of the Community Health Leadership Forum, a new virtual event series.

In Chicago, as just one example, life expectancy between some neighborhoods can vary by 30 years, because of factors like access to health care, education, nutritional food sources, income and what many call systematic disinvestment dating back decades.

COVID-19 has made such inequities impossible to ignore. Expected at first to be “the great equalizer,” hitting all demographics equally hard, the novel coronavirus has caused impoverished, mostly Black and underrepresented minority populations to suffer far more death and ill health effects than their white peers.

COVID-19 “attacks vulnerabilities in a truly diabolical way,” said featured speaker Wes Moore, chief executive officer of Robin Hood, one of the nation’s leading anti-poverty organizations.

“We are going to need a concerted and a collective effort to deal with a calcified and hard problem” of poverty and racism and how they influence health, Moore said. Half of the population of New York City lived in poverty for at least one year over the past four years, Moore said, and the probability of dipping back into poverty within a year was 37% – even before COVID-19 hit. “The data continues to reinforce the fact that … [poverty] is not a choice of the person who is feeling the weight of poverty, it’s society’s choice,” Moore said.

Those in poverty are far more likely to have preexisting conditions like asthma, diabetes and obesity, Moore noted, putting them at greater risk of death from COVID-19 and other illnesses.

In his new book, “Five Days: The Fiery Reckoning of an American City,” Moore examined the 2015 death of Freddie Gray and its aftermath in the city of Baltimore. Moore wrote that Gray, born premature and underweight to a heroin-addicted mother, had grown up in poverty and was exposed to lead at a far greater rate than the limit recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Freddie Gray never had a shot,” Moore said, because he was failed by every social system, including the health system, and not just law enforcement.

Yet Moore remains optimistic. “We are not yet what we can be; our responsibility to get there is our responsibility to get there,” he said. Citing a